Java 8 — Overview

JAVA 8 is a noteworthy component arrival of JAVA programming language development. Its underlying variant was discharged on 18 March 2014. With the Java 8 discharge, Java gave backings to useful programming, new JavaScript motor, new APIs for date time control, new spilling API, and so on.

New Features

• Lambda expression − Adds useful handling ability to Java.

• Method references − Referencing capacities by their names as opposed to conjuring them specifically. Utilizing capacities as the parameter.

• Default technique − Interface to have default strategy execution.

• New tools − New compiler apparatuses and utilities are included like ‘jdeps’ to make sense of conditions.

• Stream API − New stream API to encourage pipeline handling.

• Date Time API − Improved date time API.

• Optional − Emphasis on best practices to deal with invalid qualities appropriately.

• Nashorn, JavaScript Engine − A Java-based motor to execute JavaScript code.

Java 8 — Lambda Expressions

Lambda articulations are presented in Java 8 and are touted to be the greatest component of Java 8. Lambda articulation encourages utilitarian programming and streamlines the advancement a great deal.

A lambda articulation is described by the accompanying language structure.

parameter → articulation body

Following are the vital qualities of a lambda expression.

• Optional type declaration − No compelling reason to announce the kind of a parameter. The compiler would inference be able to the same from the estimation of the parameter.

• Optional parenthesis around parameter − No compelling reason to proclaim a solitary parameter in a bracket. For various parameters, enclosures are required.

• Optional curly braces − No compelling reason to utilize wavy supports in articulation body if the body contains a solitary explanation.

• Optional return keyword − The compiler consequently restores the esteem if the body has a solitary articulation to restore the esteem. Curly braces are required to indicate that expression returns a value.

Java 8 — Method References

Strategy references help to point to strategies by their names. A technique reference is portrayed utilizing “::” image. A technique reference can be utilized to call attention to the accompanying kinds of strategies −

• Static techniques

• Instance techniques

• Constructors utilizing new administrator (TreeSet::new)

Java 8 — Functional Interfaces

Useful interfaces have a solitary usefulness to display. For instance, a Comparable interface with a solitary technique ‘compareTo’ is utilized for examination reason. Java 8 has characterized a lot of practical interfaces to be utilized widely in lambda articulations. Following is the rundown of utilitarian interfaces characterized in java.util.Function bundle.

Java 8 — Default Methods

Java 8 presents another idea of default strategy usage in interfaces. This capacity is included for in reverse similarity with the goal that old interfaces can be utilized to use the lambda articulation ability of Java 8.

For instance, ‘Rundown’ or ‘Gathering’ interfaces don’t have ‘forEach’ technique statement. In this manner, including such strategy will basically break the accumulation structure usage. Java 8 presents default technique with the goal that List/Collection interface can have a default execution of forEach strategy, and the class actualizing these interfaces require not actualize the same.


open interface vehicle {

default void print() {

System.out.println(“I am a vehicle!”);



Multiple Defaults

With default works in interfaces, there is a probability that a class is executing two interfaces with same default techniques. The accompanying code clarifies how this uncertainty can be settled.

Java 8 — Streams

A stream is another calculated layer exhibited in Java 8. Using stream, you can process data unequivocally like SQL declarations. For example, consider the going with SQL explanation.

SELECT max(salary), employee_id, employee_name FROM Employee

The above SQL articulation naturally restores the most extreme salaried representative’s points of interest, without doing any calculation on the designer’s end. Utilizing accumulations structure in Java, a designer needs to utilize circles and make rehashed checks. Another worry is productivity; as multi-center processors are accessible calm, a Java designer needs to compose parallel code preparing that can be pretty mistaken inclined.

To determine such issues, Java 8 presented the idea of a stream that gives the designer a chance to process information decisively and influences multicore engineering without the need to compose a particular code for it.

What is Stream?

The stream speaks to an arrangement of items from a source, which underpins total activities. Following are the qualities of a Stream −

• A grouping of components − A stream gives an arrangement of components of the particular sort in a consecutive way. A stream gets/registers components on request. It never stores the components.

• Source − Stream takes Collections, Arrays, or I/O assets as the information source.

• Aggregate operations − Stream underpins total tasks like channel, outline, lessen, discover, match, et cetera.

• Pipelining − Most of the stream activities returns stream itself with the goal that their outcome can be pipelined. These activities are called middle tasks and their capacity is to take enter, process them, and return yield to the objective. gather() strategy is a terminal activity which is ordinarily present toward the finish of the pipelining task to check the finish of the stream.

• Automatic iterations − Stream activities do the emphasis inside finished the source components gave, as opposed to Collections where an express emphasis is required.

Generating Streams

With Java 8, Collection interface has two strategies to create a Stream.

• stream() − Returns a consecutive stream of thinking about gathering as its source.

• parallelStream() − Returns a parallel Stream thinking about accumulation as its source.


The stream has given another strategy ‘forEach’ to emphasize every component of the stream. The accompanying code portion demonstrates to print 10 arbitrary numbers utilizing forEach.

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